To truly appreciate an open class sportbike, a rider must possess a heightened sense of passion – passion for mind-boggling power and confidence-inspiring handling. These are the very attributes that describe the Kawasaki NINJA® ZX-12R motorcycle, and only the most serious rider need apply. As Cycle World magazine wrote of the NINJA ZX-12R: "Kawasaki's open-class sportbike combines brute muscle with a responsive, solid-handling chassis. Whether you're staring down a dragstrip or carving along a twisty mountain road, the big Ninja's tractable power and raw acceleration can blur the landscape like few other machines can.” The ZX-12R’s 16-valve, DOHC, 1199cc inline-four engine produces ample horsepower at all rpm range, and includes a Nippondenso electronic fuel-injection system to smooth its power delivery. The ZX-12R system utilizes 46mm throttle bodies with injector tips spraying fuel directly at the intake valves, however, sudden changes in throttle opening can sometimes cause hesitation and inconsistent throttle response. The sub throttles are placed high in the intake tract and are controlled by the electronic Engine Control Unit (ECU), which automatically adjusts air intake to more precisely match engine demand. The result is a smooth flow of power at all throttle positions, similar to that of constant velocity carburetor designs, with the efficiency of modern fuel injection.